examples of quantifier-pronoun flip
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When all, both, and each appear in an NP whose head is a pronoun, they must be followed by of, and the pronoun is therefore in the object form, as shown in 12).
- 12a) All (of ) his books got good reviews.
- 12b) All of them got good reviews.
- 12c) Both of them got good reviews.
- 12d) Each of them got a good review.
- 12e) All them got good reviews.
The quantifier and the pronoun can optionally switch positions through a rule called QUANTIFIER-PRONOUN FLIP.
As 13) shows, when this happens, the pronoun, which no longer follows of, has the subject form.
- 13a) All of them got good reviews.
- 13b) They all got good reviews. → quantifier-pronoun flip
Quantifier-pronoun flip also applies to pronouns that are not sentence subjects, as is the case in 14). In 14b), the NP to which the flip applies is the object of the verb unpacked, so the flipped pronoun in 14c) remains in the object form.
- 14a) John unpacked all (of ) his books.
- 14b) John unpacked all of them.
- 14c) John unpacked them all.
For some native speakers, quantifier-pronoun flip with each can apply only to subjects NPs. Applying it to object NPs, as is the case in 15b), produces a questionable sequence as is in 15c).
- 15a) John reviewed each of the books.
- 15b) John reviewed each of them.
- 15c) ?John reviewed them each.